March 23, 2018 

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PRICE CONTROLS: Government intervention in markets in which legal restrictions are placed on the prices charged. The two basic types of price controls are price ceilings and price floors. Price ceilings are maximum prices set below the equilibrium price. Price floors are minimum prices set above the equilibrium price. Price controls imposed on an otherwise efficient and competitive market create imbalances (shortages or surpluses) which cause inefficiency. However, imposing price controls on a market that fails to achieve efficiency (due to market control, externalities, or imperfect information) can actual improve efficiency. Price controls have also be used economy-wide in an attempt to reduce inflation.

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JUST IN TIME: A method of production in which inputs used in the production process are delivered to a firm or factory immediately before they are needed. Just in time limits the inventories of raw materials and intermediate goods kept on site. While this is credited with improving microeconomic production efficiency, it might also prevent macroeconomic business-cycle instability that is attributable to the unplanned build-up of business inventories.

     See also | business inventories | change in business inventories | microeconomics | efficiency | macroeconomics | business cycle |

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Markets that exchange financial instruments, or the legal claims to the ownership of physical assets. All four sectors--household, business, government, and foreign operate on both the demand and supply sides of financial markets. The household sector is generally a net buyer of legal claims as it saves a portion of income. The business and government sector tend to be net sellers as they borrow the funds used to pay for expenditures. The study of macroeconomics is concerned with how the flow of income through financial markets affects short-run business-cycle instability and long-run economic growth. The financial markets are one of three primary sets of macroeconomic markets. The other two are product markets and resource markets.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club wanting to buy either a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or decorative garden figurines. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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The 22.6% decline in stock prices on October 19, 1987 was larger than the infamous 12.8% decline on October 29, 1929.
"It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing of the little things, the common duties, a little better and better."

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