March 23, 2018 

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WEALTH OF NATIONS, THE: Officially titled "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations", this book written by Adam Smith and published in 1776, is considered to be the foundation for the modern study of economics. The Wealth of Nations was the first to combine assorted economic discourse and analyses into a single book. One of its most important themes is the efficiency of free trade and market exchanges unrestricted by government that leads to macroeconomic full employment and microeconomic efficiency. The Wealth of Nations is one of the most famous books worldwide. It continues to provide economic insight over two hundred years after its initial appearance.

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CHANGE IN BUSINESS INVENTORIES: The increase or decrease in the stocks of final goods, intermediate goods, raw materials, and other inputs that businesses keep on hand to use in production. This is one of two main categories of gross private domestic investment included in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. The other category is fixed investment. Change in business inventories is NOT what most people think of when the topic of business investment arises. Inventory changes are considered investment because firms need inventories to smooth the flow of production and sales just like they need factories and equipment to produce goods. In fact, inventories are frequently termed "working capital."

     See also | final good | intermediate good | raw materials | input | business | gross private domestic investment | National Income and Product Accounts | Bureau of Economic Analysis | fixed investment | production | business cycle | economic indicators |

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A disequilibrium condition in a competitive market in which the quantity supplied is greater than the quantity demanded. Excess supply is another way to say surplus. It also goes by the common term of buyers' market. Excess supply is one of two disequilibrium states of the market. The other is excess demand (or shortage).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club wanting to buy either a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or decorative garden figurines. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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A thousand years before metal coins were developed, clay tablet "checks" were used as money by the Babylonians.
"It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing of the little things, the common duties, a little better and better."

-- Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Writer

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