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July 1, 2022 

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ALLOCATION EFFECT: The goal of imposing taxes to change the allocation of resources, that is, to discourage the production, consumption, or exchange or one type of good usually in favor of another. This is one of two reasons that governments impose taxes. The other reason is the revenue effect. Because people would rather not pay taxes, taxes create disincentives to produce, consume, and exchange. If society deems that less of a particular good, such as alcohol, pollution, or cigarettes are "bad," then a tax can reduce its production and consumption, and thus change the allocation of resources.

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LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL UTILITY: The principle stating that as more of a good is consumed, eventually each additional unit of the good provides less additional utility--that is, marginal utility decreases. Each subsequent unit of a good is valued less than the previous one. The law of diminishing marginal utility helps explain the negative slope of the demand curve and the law of demand.

     See also | principle | cause and effect | utility | marginal utility | demand curve | law of demand | utility | marginal utility | consumer demand theory |


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AGGREGATE DEMAND DECREASE, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

A shock to the short-run aggregate market caused by a decrease in aggregate demand, resulting in and illustrated by a leftward shift of the aggregate demand curve. A decrease in aggregate demand in the short-run aggregate market results in a decrease in the price level and a decrease in real production. The level of real production resulting from the shock can be greater or less than full-employment real production.

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