March 21, 2018 

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RISK POOLING: Combining the uncertainty of individuals into a calculable risk for large groups. For example, you may or may not contract the flu this year. However, if you're thrown in with 99,999 other people, then health-care types who spend their lives measuring the odds of an illness, can predict that 1 percent of the group, or 1,000 people, will get the flu. The uncertainty is that they probably don't know which 1,000 people, they only know the number afflicted. This little bit of information is what makes risk pooling possible. If the cost is $50 per illness, then an insurance company can insure your 100,000-member group against flu if they collect $50,000 ($50 x 1,000 sick people), or 50 cents per person. By agreeing to pay the cost of each sick person in exchange for the 50 cent payments, the insurance company has effectively pooled the risk of the group.

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LONG-RUN PRODUCTION: An analysis of the production decision made by a firm in the long run. The central feature of this long-run analysis is returns to scale, which results in the long run even though all inputs are variable. Returns to scale are reflected in the long-run average cost curve as either economies to scale or diseconomies to scale.

     See also | long run | returns to scale | long-run average cost curve | planning curve | long-run equilibrium | long-run marginal cost | long-run total cost |

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Business investment expenditures that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in investment. Autonomous investment is best thought of as investment that the business sector undertakes regardless of the state of the economy. It is measured by the intercept term of the investment line. The alternative to autonomous investment is induced investment, which does depend on income.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers trying to buy either a how-to book on fixing your computer, with illustrations or several magazines on computer software. Be on the lookout for poorly written technical manuals.
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