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January 19, 2018 

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TOBIN'S Q: A financial measure of a firm's returns, calculated by dividing the market value of the firm (that is, the market value of its outstanding stock and debt) by the replacement costs of the firm's assets. According to James Tobin of Yale University, Nobel Laureate in Economics in 1981, if this ratio is greater than 1 it means that the firm is earning a rate of return higher than that justified by the costs of its assets. That is, Tobin suggested that the ratio of the market value of a firm to the replacement costs of its assets should be close to 1.

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RETURNS TO SCALE: Changes in production the occurs when all resources are proportionately increased in the long run. Returns to scale answers the question: If labor, capital, and ALL other inputs increase by 10%, does output increase by more than 10%, less than 10%, or exactly 10%? These answers indicate that returns to scale can take one of three forms: increasing returns to scale, decreasing returns to scale, and constant returns to scale.

     See also | increasing returns to scale | decreasing returns to scale | constant returns to scale | economies of scale | diseconomies of scale | minimum efficient scale | resources | long run |


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RETURNS TO SCALE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: January 19, 2018].


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LABOR FORCE

The total number of people in an economy, society, or country willing and able to exert mental and/or physical efforts in productive activities. The labor force is a more technical term for the labor resource or labor supply. It includes both employed workers and unemployed workers. An official variation of this term is civilian labor force. While labor force may or may not include military personnel, the civilian labor force explicitly excludes the military. Labor and labor resources are the theoretical terms that economists like to banter about. Labor force and civilian labor force are the terms of choice for government policy makers, data-crunchers, and others who need precise labor resource numbers.

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