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April 23, 2018 

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PARETO IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Pareto efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if it is possible for one person to benefit without anyone else being harmed. A Pareto improvement is possible if the economy has idle resources or market failures. With idle resources, more production is possible to help some without hurting others. With market failures, corrective actions can eliminate deadweight loss that can then be use for benefits economy-wide. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Kaldor-Hicks improvement.

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PLANNED INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector intends to undertake based on expected economic conditions, interest rates, sales, and profitability. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

     See also | investment expenditures | business sector | Keynesian economics | macroeconomics | equilibrium | actual investment | unplanned investment | change in inventories |


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CONSUMPTION FUNCTION

A mathematical relation between consumption and income by the household sector. The consumption function can be stated as an equation, usually a simple linear equation, or as a diagram designated as the consumption line. This function captures the consumption-income relation that forms one of the key building blocks for Keynesian economics. The two key parameters of the consumption function are the intercept term, which indicates autonomous consumption, and the slope, which is the marginal propensity to consume and indicates induced consumption. Aggregate expenditures used in Keynesian economics are derived by adding investment, government purchases, and net exports to the consumption function.

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