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June 18, 2018 

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VERTICAL EQUITY: A system of taxes that treats unequal people unequally. In other words, if you make the less income than someone else and pay fewer personal income taxes, then we have vertical equity.

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PRINT AND MINT: A handy phrase for one method of controlling the money supply -- printing paper currency and minting metal coins. This was the method commonly used by governments BEFORE checkable deposits became a significant share of the money supply. In modern times the total quantity of money in circulation is controlled by controlling bank reserves and money creation process of banks. The print and mint method is largely used just to "fill in the gaps" and when the nonbank public decides to transfer money from checkable deposits to currency and coins.

     See also | money | money creation | monetary policy | currency | coin | checkable deposits | money supply | bank reserves |


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MARKET FAILURES

Imperfections in the exchange process between buyers and sellers that prevent markets from efficiently allocating scarce resources. Market failures come in four varieties -- public goods, market control, externalities, and imperfect information. Market efficiency is achieved if the value of goods produced is equal to the value of foregone production. Markets fail when this efficiency condition is not achieved. Such failures can only be corrected by government intervention.

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BLACK DISMALAPOD
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale trying to buy either a toaster oven that has convection cooking or a birthday gift for your mother. Be on the lookout for deranged pelicans.
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Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
"We must be willing to let go of the life we have planned, so as to have the life that is waiting for us. "

-- E. M. Forster, writer

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