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October 16, 2018 

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EXCESS CAPACITY: A condition that exists when monopolistic competition achieves long-run equilibrium such that production by each firm is less than minimum efficient scale. The implication of this condition is that each firm is not producing up to its fullest capacity, as would be the case under perfect competition, and thus more firms are need to produce total market output compared to perfect competition. Excess capacity results because market control means a monopolistically competitive firm faces a negatively-sloped demand curve. Long-run equilibrium is thus achieved by the tangency of the negatively-sloped demand curve and the long-run average cost curve, which results in economies to scale.

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PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION: Real of perceive differences among similar goods that prompt buyers to pay different prices. Product differentiation is a method used by some firms to achieve market control. The three methods of product differentiation are physical differences, perceived differences, and support services. The greater the differentiation is among products, then the more ability firms have to exert control over prices. Product differentiation is perhaps most important for market control by firms in monopolistic competition, but it also plays a role in oligopoly.

     See also | market control | monopolistic competition | oligopoly | market structure |


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TOTAL PRODUCT AND AVERAGE PRODUCT

A graphical connection between the total product curve and the average product curve stating that the slope of a line between the origin and any point on the total product curve is equal to the average product. Imagine a ray shooting from the origin and hitting the total product curve. As this ray hits each point on the curve, remaining anchored at the origin, the slope of the ray changes, and the slope of this ray is average product.

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