
EXCESS CAPACITY: A condition that exists when monopolistic competition achieves longrun equilibrium such that production by each firm is less than minimum efficient scale. The implication of this condition is that each firm is not producing up to its fullest capacity, as would be the case under perfect competition, and thus more firms are need to produce total market output compared to perfect competition. Excess capacity results because market control means a monopolistically competitive firm faces a negativelysloped demand curve. Longrun equilibrium is thus achieved by the tangency of the negativelysloped demand curve and the longrun average cost curve, which results in economies to scale.
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TOTAL PRODUCT AND AVERAGE PRODUCT A graphical connection between the total product curve and the average product curve stating that the slope of a line between the origin and any point on the total product curve is equal to the average product. Imagine a ray shooting from the origin and hitting the total product curve. As this ray hits each point on the curve, remaining anchored at the origin, the slope of the ray changes, and the slope of this ray is average product.
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