March 18, 2018 

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PRESENT VALUE: The amount of money today that, after interest is added, would have the same value as an amount some time in the future. For example, $100 today, given a 10 percent interest rate, would have a value of $110 in one year ($100 plus $10 in interest). Conversely, $110 in one year, given a 10 percent interest rate, would be equivalent to $100 today. The process of translating a future payment into its present value, such an amount to be received when a bond reaches its date of maturity, is often termed discounting.

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TOTAL FACTOR COST, MONOPSONY: The opportunity cost incurred by a monopsony when using a given factor of production to produce a good or service. This is the total cost associated with the use of a particular resource or factor of production--it is the total cost of the factor. For monopsony, the price paid increases with the quantity purchased and total factor cost increases at an increasing rate. Total factor cost is predominately used in the analysis of the factor market. Two derivative factor cost measures are average factor cost and marginal factor cost.

     See also | average factor cost | marginal factor cost | average factor cost curve | marginal factor cost curve | total cost | total product | total factor cost, perfect competition | total factor cost, perfect competition |

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TOTAL FACTOR COST, MONOPSONY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama,, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: March 18, 2018].

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Classical economics, especially as directed toward macroeconomics, relies on three key assumptions--flexible prices, Say's law, and saving-investment equality. Flexible prices ensure that markets adjust to equilibrium and eliminate shortages and surpluses. Say's law states that supply creates its own demand and means that enough income is generated by production to purchase the resulting production. The saving-investment equality ensures that any income leaked from consumption into saving is replaced by an equal amount of investment. Although of questionable realism, these three assumptions imply that the economy would operate at full employment.

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