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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES LINE: A line representing the relation between aggregate expenditures and gross domestic product used in the Keynesian cross. The aggregate expenditure line is obtained by adding investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports to the consumption line. As such, the slope of the aggregate expenditure line is largely based on the slope of the consumption line (which is the marginal propensity to consume), with adjustments coming from the marginal propensity to invest, the marginal propensity for government purchases, and the marginal propensity to import. The intersection of the aggregate expenditures line and the 45-degree line identifies the equilibrium level of output in the Keynesian cross.

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PUBLIC GOODS: Goods that are difficult to keep nonpayers from consuming (excludability), and use of the goods by one person doesn't prevent use by others (rival consumption). Examples include national defense, a clean environment, and any fourth of July fireworks display. Public goods are invariably provided by government because there's no way a private business can profitably produce them. Private businesses can't sell public goods in markets, because they can't charge a price and keep nonpaying people away. Moreover, businesses shouldn't charge a price, because there's no opportunity cost for extra consumers. For efficiency, government needs to pay for public goods through taxes.

     See also | good types | excludability | rival consumption | efficiency | market | exchange | market failure | common-property good | near-public good | private good | free-rider problem |


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KEYNESIAN MODEL

A macroeconomic model based on the principles of Keynesian economics that is used to identify the equilibrium level of, and analyze disruptions to, aggregate production and income. This model identifies equilibrium aggregate production and income as the intersection of the aggregate expenditures line and the 45-degree line. The Keynesian model comes in three basic variations designated by the number of macroeconomic sectors included--two-sector, three-sector, and four sector. The Keynesian model is also commonly presented in the form of injections and leakages in addition to the standard aggregate expenditures format. This model is used to analyze several important topics and issues, including multipliers, business cycles, fiscal policy, and monetary policy.

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