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GOLD STANDARD: Use of gold as the standard for valuing a nation's currency. A gold standard can take at least three different forms, most of which have been part of the American economic landscape. (1) Gold is used as the money in circulation. (2) Gold is used to back up paper money in circulation. This involves the use of something like a gold certificate, such that the number of certificates in circulation is the same as the amount of gold stored someplace like Fort Knox. (3) Gold is used to fix the exchange price of paper currency in circulation. In this case, the currency could, in principle, be exchanged for some predetermined amount of gold. In other words, the price of gold is fixed in terms of dollars.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: A Little Magic
  • Money
  • Banks
  • Money Creation
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Fred Returns
  • Review
  • Currency
  • Paper Loans
  • Money Creation
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Modern Banking
  • Fractional-Reserve Magic
  • Injection
  • Another Bank
  • Yet Another Bank
  • Total Creation
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: The Multiplier
  • The Concept
  • Reserve Ratio
  • Money Multiplier
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Policy
  • Control
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Money Creation

    The magic of money creation as practiced by private banks is the topic of this lesson. While it seems like magic, money creation is a fundamental aspect of fractional-reserve banking. As such, in this lesson we take a look at why and how banks create money (a task they would seem to be the exclusive privilege of government). This examination of money creation provides insight into how government is able to control the economy's money supply.

    • The first unit introduces the magic of money creation, as practiced by the banking system.
    • The second unit presents a hypothetical example of money creation as practiced by Fred the Goldsmith, where the money is different, but the process is comparable to modern banks.
    • The third unit of this lesson, then examines a detailed example of how the banking system goes about creating money when it has an injection of excess reserves.
    • In the fourth unit, the money creation process is summarized in terms of a deposit multiplier, which a thought or two on how this can be expanded to a money multiplier, which interests government as it seeks to control the money supply.
    • The last unit of this lesson examines the money creation process in the context of monetary policies and government control of the money supply.

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    AGGREGATE DEMAND CURVE

    A graphical representation of the relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate demand determinants constant. The aggregate demand (AD) curve is one side of the graphical presentation of the aggregate market. The other side is occupied by the long-run aggregate supply curve and/or the short-run aggregate supply curve. The negative slope of the aggregate demand curve captures the inverse relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level. This negative slope is attributable to the interest-rate, real-balance, and net-export effects.

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    APLS

    BLACK DISMALAPOD
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time driving to a factory outlet seeking to buy either an AC adapter that won't fry your computer or a case for your designer sunglasses. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    The penny is the only coin minted by the U.S. government in which the "face" on the head looks to the right. All others face left.
    "Well done is better than well said. "

    -- Benjamin Franklin, statesman, inventor

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    Equal Employment Opportunity
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