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October 19, 2021 

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MARKET CLEARING: The price and quantity that equates the quantity demanded and quantity supplied; equates the demand price and supply price; and achieves market equilibrium. In other words, the market is "cleared" of shortages and surpluses.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: A Little Magic
  • Money
  • Banks
  • Money Creation
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Fred Returns
  • Review
  • Currency
  • Paper Loans
  • Money Creation
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Modern Banking
  • Fractional-Reserve Magic
  • Injection
  • Another Bank
  • Yet Another Bank
  • Total Creation
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: The Multiplier
  • The Concept
  • Reserve Ratio
  • Money Multiplier
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Policy
  • Control
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Money Creation

    The magic of money creation as practiced by private banks is the topic of this lesson. While it seems like magic, money creation is a fundamental aspect of fractional-reserve banking. As such, in this lesson we take a look at why and how banks create money (a task they would seem to be the exclusive privilege of government). This examination of money creation provides insight into how government is able to control the economy's money supply.

    • The first unit introduces the magic of money creation, as practiced by the banking system.
    • The second unit presents a hypothetical example of money creation as practiced by Fred the Goldsmith, where the money is different, but the process is comparable to modern banks.
    • The third unit of this lesson, then examines a detailed example of how the banking system goes about creating money when it has an injection of excess reserves.
    • In the fourth unit, the money creation process is summarized in terms of a deposit multiplier, which a thought or two on how this can be expanded to a money multiplier, which interests government as it seeks to control the money supply.
    • The last unit of this lesson examines the money creation process in the context of monetary policies and government control of the money supply.

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    EFFICIENT INFORMATION SEARCH

    A comparison between the cost of acquiring information and the benefit generated by the information such that it is not possible to increase welfare or well being by acquiring any more of any less information. Efficient information search is achieved by equating the marginal cost of search with the benefit of search. This efficiency is comparable to the profit-maximizing decision by a producer and the utility-maximizing decision by a consumer.

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    BROWN PRAGMATOX
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store hoping to buy either a coffee cup commemorating last Friday (you know why) or a wall poster commemorating the first day of spring. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    A scripophilist is one who collects rare stock and bond certificates, usually from extinct companies.
    "Think not of yourself as the architect of your career but as the sculptor. Expect to have to do a lot of hard hammering and chiseling and scraping and polishing. "

    -- B. C. Forbes, founder, Forbes magazine

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