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October 17, 2018 

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PERFECT COMPETITION, REALISM: Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that does NOT exist in the real world. While some real world industries might come relatively close to one or two of the four key characteristics of perfect competition, none matches all four sufficiently that they can be declared PERFECTLY competitively. Some industries come close on the large number of small firms and the identical product characteristics. A few industries have relatively good, although not perfect, information about prices and technology. However, almost all industries fall far short of the perfect mobility characteristics.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: A Little Magic
  • Money
  • Banks
  • Money Creation
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Fred Returns
  • Review
  • Currency
  • Paper Loans
  • Money Creation
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Modern Banking
  • Fractional-Reserve Magic
  • Injection
  • Another Bank
  • Yet Another Bank
  • Total Creation
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: The Multiplier
  • The Concept
  • Reserve Ratio
  • Money Multiplier
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Policy
  • Control
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Money Creation

    The magic of money creation as practiced by private banks is the topic of this lesson. While it seems like magic, money creation is a fundamental aspect of fractional-reserve banking. As such, in this lesson we take a look at why and how banks create money (a task they would seem to be the exclusive privilege of government). This examination of money creation provides insight into how government is able to control the economy's money supply.

    • The first unit introduces the magic of money creation, as practiced by the banking system.
    • The second unit presents a hypothetical example of money creation as practiced by Fred the Goldsmith, where the money is different, but the process is comparable to modern banks.
    • The third unit of this lesson, then examines a detailed example of how the banking system goes about creating money when it has an injection of excess reserves.
    • In the fourth unit, the money creation process is summarized in terms of a deposit multiplier, which a thought or two on how this can be expanded to a money multiplier, which interests government as it seeks to control the money supply.
    • The last unit of this lesson examines the money creation process in the context of monetary policies and government control of the money supply.

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    DIVISION OF LABOR

    A basic economic notion that labor resources are used more efficiently if work tasks are divided among different workers. This allows workers to specialize in production as each becomes highly skilled at specific tasks.

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    ORANGE REBELOON
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors trying to buy either a weathervane with a cow on top or a box of multi-colored, plastic paper clips. Be on the lookout for attractive cable television service repair people.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    Paper money used by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts prior to the U.S. Revolutionary War, which was issued against the dictates of Britain, was designed by patriot and silversmith, Paul Revere.
    "Do what you feel in your heart to be right for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do and damned if you don't. "

    -- Eleanor Roosevelt, first lady

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