
ENDPOINT FORMULA: A simple technique for calculating the coefficient of elasticity that estimates the elasticity for discrete changes in two variables, A and B. The distinguishing characteristic of this formula is that percentage changes are calculated based on the initial values of each variable. This is much simpler than the midpoint formula, which is based on the percentage change from an average of the initial and ending values. The primary problem with the endpoint formula is that different elasticity values are obtained for price increases than for price decreases of the same segment of the demand curve.
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INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE A given proportional change in all resources in the long run results in a proportional greater change in production. Increasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resourceslabor, capital, and other inputsby a given proportion (say 10 percent) and output increases by more than this proportion (that is more than 10 percent). This is one of three returns to scale. The other two are decreasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store hoping to buy either arch supports for your shoes or an AC adapter that works with your MPG player. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt. Your Complete Scope
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One of the largest markets for gold in the United States is the manufacturing of class rings.


"After climbing a great hill, one finds many more hills to climb. "  Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa


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