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July 19, 2018 

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ENDPOINT FORMULA: A simple technique for calculating the coefficient of elasticity that estimates the elasticity for discrete changes in two variables, A and B. The distinguishing characteristic of this formula is that percentage changes are calculated based on the initial values of each variable. This is much simpler than the midpoint formula, which is based on the percentage change from an average of the initial and ending values. The primary problem with the endpoint formula is that different elasticity values are obtained for price increases than for price decreases of the same segment of the demand curve.

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GIFFEN GOOD: A rare type of good seldom seen in the real world, in which a change in price causes quantity demanded to change in the same direction (in violation of the law of demand). In other words, an increase in the price of a Giffen good results in an increase in the quantity demanded. The existence of a Giffen good requires the existence of special circumstances. First, the good must be an inferior good. Second, the income effect triggered by a change in price must overwhelm the substitution effect. A Giffen good is most likely to result when the good is a significant share of the consumer's budget.

     See also | law of demand | income effect | substitution effect | inferior good | demand price | quantity demanded | normal good | luxury good | budget |


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INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE

A given proportional change in all resources in the long run results in a proportional greater change in production. Increasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources--labor, capital, and other inputs--by a given proportion (say 10 percent) and output increases by more than this proportion (that is more than 10 percent). This is one of three returns to scale. The other two are decreasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store hoping to buy either arch supports for your shoes or an AC adapter that works with your MPG player. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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One of the largest markets for gold in the United States is the manufacturing of class rings.
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