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MARGINAL COST CURVE: A curve that graphically represents the relation between marginal cost incurred by a firm in the short-run product of a good or service and the quantity of output produced. This curve is constructed to capture the relation between marginal cost and the level of output, holding other variables, like technology and resource prices, constant. The marginal cost curve is U-shaped. Marginal cost is relatively high at small quantities of output, then as production increases, declines, reaches a minimum value, then rises. This shape of the marginal cost curve is directly attributable to increasing, then decreasing marginal returns (and the law of diminishing marginal returns).

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IBT: The abbreviation for indirect business taxes, which is the official entry in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis for sales taxes. Indirect business taxes are one key difference between national income (the resource cost of production) and gross/net domestic product (the market value of production). For further discussion of this point, see gross domestic product and national income or net domestic product and national income. Indirect business taxes is generally less than 10% of gross domestic product (7-8% is common).

     See also | national income | net domestic product | gross domestic product | National Income and Product Accounts | Bureau of Economic Analysis | sales tax | business sector | government sector | household sector | tax incidence | corporate income tax | property tax |


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VOTING PARADOX

The possibility that the voting preferences of a group of individuals results in an inconsistent, or intransitive, ranking. While consistent, or transitive, ranking of preferences is expected for individuals, such might not occur for groups of voters. If a consumer prefers good A to good B and good B to good C, then it makes logical sense that the consumer also prefers good A to good C. The voting paradox arises because a group of individuals might prefer A to B and B to C, but then prefer C to A, an inconsistent and intransitive ranking of preferences. Other related voting problems identified by the study of public choice includes the median voter principle, logrolling, and voter apathy (due to rational ignorance and rational abstention).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius hoping to buy either a how-to book on the art of negotiation or a flower arrangement for your aunt. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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Only 1% of the U.S. population paid income taxes when the income tax was established in 1914.
"He who has a „why¾ to live can bear with almost any „how.""

-- Friedrich Nietzsche, Philosopher

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