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August 9, 2022 

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PLANNED ECONOMY: An economy, or economic system, that relies heavily on central planning by government to allocate resources and answer the three basic questions of allocation. This is also commonly termed a command economy. A planned economy should be contrasted with a market-oriented economy, or capitalism. One the big spectrum of economy systems, a planned economy lies much closer to the pure command economy extreme than to the pure market economy end. The former Soviet Union and China represent the most noted examples of planned economies.

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J CURVE: An interesting relationship that exists between the exchange rate for a nation's currency and its balance of trade. In principle, the drop in a nation's exchange rate, or price of currency, makes the currency less expensive to "buy." With "cheaper" currency the price of domestic production is less and the price of foreign stuff is more, causing an increase in exports to other countries and drop in imports coming in from foreign producers. The economy thus moves in the direction away from a trade deficit and toward a trade surplus. However, the first few months after a drop in the exchange rate the balance of trade goes in the other direction, with any existing trade deficit increasing or any trade surplus shrinking. This occurs because the quantities imported and exported don't change in the short run, but the prices do. Because more is paid for the same amount of imported goods and receive less for the same amount of exports, total spending on imports increases, total revenue received from exports declines, and the movement is in the trade deficit direction. Once those quantities start adjusting in the long run, then we see a movement in the direction of a trade surplus.

     See also | foreign trade | foreign exchange | depreciation | exchange rate | currency | balance of trade | domestic | foreign | export | import | net exports | trade deficit | trade surplus | short run | long run |


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SECOND ESTATE

Another term for the business sector. This is one of four divisions of society based on economic function. The other three are government as the first estate, consumers as the third estate, and journalists as the fourth estate.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through mail order catalogs seeking to buy either an extra large beach blanket or a large flower pot shaped like a Greek urn. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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Two and a half gallons of oil are needed to produce one automobile tire.
"Work is an extension of personality. It is achievement. It is one of the ways in which a person defines himself, measures his worth and his humanity. "

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Strong Law of Large Numbers
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