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SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION: The notion that economic activity is not evenly dispersed across the land. That is, goods, services, resources, production, and consumption are more concentrated at some locations and less concentrated at other locations due to natural endowments and human activity. The result is that no two location points have exactly the same access to inputs or outputs. This is a fundamental principle underlying the study of urban and regional economics and implies that firms and households must include transportation cost and location in production and consumption decisions.

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J CURVE: An interesting relationship that exists between the exchange rate for a nation's currency and its balance of trade. In principle, the drop in a nation's exchange rate, or price of currency, makes the currency less expensive to "buy." With "cheaper" currency the price of domestic production is less and the price of foreign stuff is more, causing an increase in exports to other countries and drop in imports coming in from foreign producers. The economy thus moves in the direction away from a trade deficit and toward a trade surplus. However, the first few months after a drop in the exchange rate the balance of trade goes in the other direction, with any existing trade deficit increasing or any trade surplus shrinking. This occurs because the quantities imported and exported don't change in the short run, but the prices do. Because more is paid for the same amount of imported goods and receive less for the same amount of exports, total spending on imports increases, total revenue received from exports declines, and the movement is in the trade deficit direction. Once those quantities start adjusting in the long run, then we see a movement in the direction of a trade surplus.

     See also | foreign trade | foreign exchange | depreciation | exchange rate | currency | balance of trade | domestic | foreign | export | import | net exports | trade deficit | trade surplus | short run | long run |


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INJECTIONS LINE

A graphical representation of the relation between the level of aggregate production and one or more injections. The three injections (non-consumption expenditures on aggregate production) are investment expenditures, government purchases and exports. The injections line sequentially adds, or layers, each of these three expenditures depending on the number of sectors used in the analysis (two, three, or four). The slope of the injections line depends on which if any of the expenditures are induced by aggregate production. The injections line is combined with the leakages line (containing saving, taxes, and imports) in the Keynesian injections-leakages model.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway looking to buy either a birthday gift for your aunt or a pair of leather sandals that won't cause blisters. Be on the lookout for florescent light bulbs that hum folk songs from the sixties.
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The first "Black Friday" on record, a friday marked by a major financial catastrophe, occurred on September 24, 1869 -- A FRIDAY -- when an attempted cornering of the gold market induced a financial crises and economy-wide depression.
"You can't build a reputation on what you are going to do."

-- Henry Ford, automaker

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Tokyo Commodity Exchange (Japan)
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