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April 23, 2018 

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AGGREGATE MARKET EQUILIBRIUM: The state of equilibrium that exists in the aggregate market when real aggregate expenditures are equal to real production with no imbalances to induce changes in the price level or real production. In other words, the opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and aggregate supply (the sellers) exactly offset each other. The four macroeconomic sector (household, business, government, and foreign) buyers purchase all of the real production that they seek at the existing price level and business-sector producers sell all of the real production that they have at the existing price level. The aggregate market equilibrium actually comes in two forms: (1) long-run equilibrium, in which all three aggregated markets (product, financial, and resource) are in equilibrium and (2) short-run equilibrium, in which the product and financial markets are in equilibrium, but the resource markets are not.

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LERNER INDEX: The difference between price (p) and marginal cost (mc) as a fraction of price, that is [p-mc]/p. The Lerner index is usually taken as an indicator of market power because the larger the index, the larger the difference between price and marginal cost, that is, the larger the distance between the price and the competitive price. The Lerner index depends on the elasticity of demand. The Lerner index is also called the price-cost margin.

     See also | market power | monopoly | price | competitive market | price maker | price leadership | marginal-cost pricing | price-cost margin |


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INFORMATION

The transfer of knowledge from one person to another. Information is a flow concept. It requires someone (or something) to do the sending and someone to do the receiving. Information is a valuable commodity that provides benefits, but also incurs an opportunity cost to produce, meaning information is never perfect or complete. The existence of asymmetric information (some have more information than others) gives rise to the problems of adverse selection, moral hazard, and the principal-agent problem.

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