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April 25, 2018 

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GOOD TYPES: We can identify four different types of goods based on two key characteristics -- rival consumption and excludability. Private that are rival in consumption and easily subject to the exclusion of nonpayers. Public goods that are nonrival in consumption and the exclusion of nonpayers is virtually impossible. Near-public goods that are nonrival in consumption and easily subject to the exclusion. Common-property goods that are rival in consumption and not easily subject to the exclusion.

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PRICE-COST MARGIN: The difference between price (p) and marginal cost (mc) as a fraction of price, that is [p-mc]/p. The price-cost margin is usually taken as an indicator of market power because the larger the margin, the larger the difference between price and marginal cost, that is, the larger the distance between the price and the competitive price. The price-cost margin depends on the elasticity of demand. The price-cost margin is also called the Lerner index of market power.

     See also | market power | monopoly | price | competitive market | price maker | price leadership | marginal-cost pricing | Lerner index |


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ELASTICITY ALTERNATIVES

Five categories of elasticity that form a continuum indicating the relative responsiveness of a change in one variable (usually quantity demanded or quantity supplied) to a change in another variable (usually price). These five alternatives--perfectly elastic, relatively elastic, unit elastic, relatively inelastic, and perfectly inelastic--are most often used to categorize the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a dollar discount store hoping to buy either a replacement battery for your pocket calculator or a how-to book on home remodeling. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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On a typical day, the United States Mint produces over $1 million worth of dimes.
"The greatest things ever done on Earth have been done little by little. "

-- William Jennings Bryan

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Bayesian VAR (Vector Autoregression)
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