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April 22, 2018 

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ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY: Obtaining the most consumer satisfaction from available resources. Allocative efficiency means that our economy is doing the best job possible of satisfying unlimited wants and needs with limited resources -- that is, of addressing the problem of scarcity.

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PARETO EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if one person can not be made better off without making someone else worse off. Named after Vilfredo Pareto, this criterion is the guiding theoretical notion of efficiency used in the study of economics, especially welfare economics. Pareto efficiency is generally not attained if some resources are idle or unemployed. By engaging idle resources in production, some people can have more production without reducing that available to others. A problem with Pareto efficiency, however, is that it is based on the existing distribution of income and wealth. This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Kaldor-Hicks efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | Pareto improvement | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure | unemployment | resources | income distribution | wealth distribution | distribution standards |


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MARGINAL REVENUE, MONOPOLY

The change in total revenue resulting from a change in the quantity of output sold. Marginal revenue indicates how much extra revenue a monopoly receives for selling an extra unit of output. It is found by dividing the change in total revenue by the change in the quantity of output. Marginal revenue is the slope of the total revenue curve and is one of two revenue concepts derived from total revenue. The other is average revenue. To maximize profit, a monopoly equates marginal revenue and marginal cost.

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