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December 12, 2018 

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GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT: The total market value of all goods and services produced by the citizens of an economy during a given period of time, usually one year. Gross national product, often abbreviated simply as GNP, was once the federal government's official measure of how much output our economy produces. In the early 1990s, however, it was replaced by gross domestic product (GDP).

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PARETO EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if one person can not be made better off without making someone else worse off. Named after Vilfredo Pareto, this criterion is the guiding theoretical notion of efficiency used in the study of economics, especially welfare economics. Pareto efficiency is generally not attained if some resources are idle or unemployed. By engaging idle resources in production, some people can have more production without reducing that available to others. A problem with Pareto efficiency, however, is that it is based on the existing distribution of income and wealth. This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Kaldor-Hicks efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | Pareto improvement | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure | unemployment | resources | income distribution | wealth distribution | distribution standards |


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DECREASING MARGINAL RETURNS

In the short-run production of a firm, an increase in the variable input results in a decrease in the marginal product of the variable input. Decreasing marginal returns typically surface after the first few quantities of a variable input are added to a fixed input. This is one of two types of marginal returns. The other is increasing marginal returns. A related phenomenon is diseconomies of scale associated with long-run production.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a dollar discount store hoping to buy either a really, really exciting, action-filled video game or a coffee cup commemorating the moon landing. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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One of the largest markets for gold in the United States is the manufacturing of class rings.
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