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June 23, 2018 

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HOTELLING'S PARADOX: A principle stating that monopolistically competitive firms seek to maintain similarities between products at the same time they maintain differences. Similarities enable substitutability. That is, one firm can attract the buyers away from other firms. Differences enable uniqueness and market control. That is, a firm has a small monopoly for its product that allows it to charge a higher price than achieved with perfect competition. This is also termed the principle of minimum differences.

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WELFARE ECONOMICS: A branch of economics that studies efficiency and the overall well-being of society based on alternative allocations of scarce resources. Welfare economics extends the microeconomic analysis of indifference curves to society as a whole. It is concerned with broad efficiency questions and criteria (Pareto efficiency and Kaldor-Hicks efficiency) as well as more specific efficiency issues (market failures, externalities, public goods).

     See also | efficiency | indifference curve | Pareto efficiency | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | market failure | externalities | public goods |


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RESERVE REQUIREMENTS

Rules established and enforced by the Federal Reserve System governing the amount of reserves (vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits) that banks must keep to back up their deposits. Reserve requirements help to maintain a stable banking system and ensure that banks are able to conduct day-to-day check-clearing and cash-withdrawal transactions. These requirements are also one of the three monetary policy tools that the Fed can use, in principle, to control the money supply. The other two are open market operations and the discount rate.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time driving to a factory outlet wanting to buy either a turbo-powered vacuum cleaner or a battery-powered, rechargeable vacuum cleaner. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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John Maynard Keynes was born the same year Karl Marx died.
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