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July 17, 2019 

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LONG-RUN TREND: The general movement over time of particular measurement, especially one prone toward shorter term fluctuations. One of the most important long-run trends in the study of macroeconomics is for real GDP. The long-run trend of real GDP, which has historically increased about 3% a year, indicates the increase in the economy's production capabilities. Such capabilities have increased due to increases in the quantity and quality of resources.

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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if the monetary value of society's resources are maximized. This is achieved if the marginal willingness to pay by those who benefit from an action is equal to the marginal willingness to accept of those harmed. If this condition is not achieved, then a Kaldor-Hicks improvement is possible. Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, named after Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, is the theoretical basis of benefit-cost analysis, a technique commonly used to evaluate the desirability of producing public goods (such as parks, highways, or reservoirs). This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Pareto efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | willingness to pay | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | Kaldor-Hicks improvement | Pareto efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure |


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AGGREGATE DEMAND DECREASE, LONG-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

A shock to the long-run aggregate market caused by a decrease in aggregate demand resulting in and illustrated by a leftward shift of the aggregate demand curve. A decrease in aggregate demand in the long-run aggregate market results in an increase in the price level but no change in real production. The level of real production resulting from the aggregate demand shock is full-employment real production.

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