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NORMAL GOOD: A good for which an increase in income causes an increase in demand, or a rightward shift in the demand curve. If demand increases as income increases, it is a normal good or a good with a positive income elasticity of demand. A normal good is one of two alternatives falling within the income determinant of demand. The other is an inferior good.

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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if the monetary value of society's resources are maximized. This is achieved if the marginal willingness to pay by those who benefit from an action is equal to the marginal willingness to accept of those harmed. If this condition is not achieved, then a Kaldor-Hicks improvement is possible. Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, named after Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, is the theoretical basis of benefit-cost analysis, a technique commonly used to evaluate the desirability of producing public goods (such as parks, highways, or reservoirs). This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Pareto efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | willingness to pay | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | Kaldor-Hicks improvement | Pareto efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure |


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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES EQUATION

An equation that summarizes the four aggregate expenditures on gross domestic product by the four macroeconomic sectors. In the study of Keynesian economics, this equation is commonly used to summarize the demand side of the macroeconomy. The aggregate expenditures equation actually comes in three different versions depending on how many of the four sectors and their expenditures are included.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex seeking to buy either hand lotion, a big bottle of hand lotion or a lighted magnifying glass. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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The first U.S. fire insurance company was established by Benjamin Franklin in 1752 in Philadelphia.
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