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RESOURCE QUANTITY, AGGREGATE SUPPLY DETERMINANT: One of three categories of aggregate supply determinants assumed constant when the short-run and long-run aggregate supply curves are constructed, and which shifts both aggregate supply curves when it changes. An increase in a resource quantity causes an increase (rightward shift) of both aggregate supply curves. A decrease in a resource quantity causes a decrease (leftward shift) of both aggregate supply curves. The other two categories of aggregate supply determinants are resource quality and resource price. Specific determinants falling into this general category include population, labor force participation, capital stock, and exploration. Anything affecting the quantity of labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship is also included.

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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if the monetary value of society's resources are maximized. This is achieved if the marginal willingness to pay by those who benefit from an action is equal to the marginal willingness to accept of those harmed. If this condition is not achieved, then a Kaldor-Hicks improvement is possible. Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, named after Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, is the theoretical basis of benefit-cost analysis, a technique commonly used to evaluate the desirability of producing public goods (such as parks, highways, or reservoirs). This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Pareto efficiency.

     See also | efficiency | willingness to pay | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | Kaldor-Hicks improvement | Pareto efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure |


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TAX WEDGE

The difference between demand price and supply price that is created when a tax is imposed on a market. Placing a tax on a market disrupts what otherwise would be an equilibrium equality between demand price and supply price. A tax wedge results because the tax is included in the demand price paid by buyers but not in the supply price received by sellers. With standard demand (negative slope) and supply (positive slope) curves, the incidence of the tax (who pays) is divided between buyers and sellers.

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