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December 17, 2018 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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WILLINGNESS TO ACCEPT: The price or dollar amount that someone is willing to receive or accept to give up a good or service. Willingness to accept is the source of the supply price of a good. However, unlike supply price, in which sellers are on the spot of actually giving up a good to receive payment, willingness to accept does not require an actual exchange. This concept is important to benefit-cost analysis, welfare economics, and efficiency criteria, especially Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. A related concept is willingness to pay.

     See also | supply price | efficiency | willingness to pay | benefit-cost analysis | welfare economics | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | Pareto efficiency | externality | market failure |


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OLIGOPOLY AND MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

Oligopoly and monopolistic competition have some similarities, but also have a few important differences. Both are examples of imperfect competition on the market structure continuum between ideals of perfect competition and monopoly. However, oligopoly contains a small number of large firms and monopolistic competition contains a large number of small firms. The dividing line between oligopoly and monopolistic competition can be blurred due to the number of firms in the industry.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials wanting to buy either a really, really exciting, action-filled video game or a coffee cup commemorating the moon landing. Be on the lookout for gnomes hiding in cypress trees.
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Paper money used by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts prior to the U.S. Revolutionary War, which was issued against the dictates of Britain, was designed by patriot and silversmith, Paul Revere.
"When I look back on all these worries, I remember the story of the old man who said on his deathbed that he had had a lot of trouble in his life, most of which had never happened. "

-- Winston Churchill, British statesman

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