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April 24, 2018 

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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE EQUATION: An equation indicating that aggregate expenditures (AE) are the sum of consumption expenditures (C), investment expenditures (I), government purchases (G), and net exports (X-M), stated as: AE = C + I + G + (X-M). This equation surfaces in the Keynesian economic income-expenditure model in the form of the aggregate expenditures line. However, it's also central throughout the study of macroeconomics, including aggregate demand and the measurement of gross domestic product.

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WILLINGNESS TO PAY: The price or dollar amount that someone is willing to give up or pay to acquire a good or service. Willingness to pay is the source of the demand price of a good. However, unlike demand price, in which buyers are on the spot of actually giving up the payment, willingness to pay does not require an actual payment. This concept is important to benefit-cost analysis, welfare economics, and efficiency criteria, especially Kaldor-Hicks efficiency. A related concept is willingness to accept.

     See also | demand price | efficiency | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | welfare economics | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | Pareto efficiency | externality | market failure |


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INFLATION CAUSES

Inflation, the persistent increase in the average price level, can be caused by an increase in aggregate demand or a decrease in aggregate supply. This suggests two basics sources, causes, or types of inflation--demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation. While short-term bouts of inflation (up to several months) can result from anything (determinant) that might cause either increases in aggregate demand or decreases in aggregate supply, long-term inflation (a year or more) is possible ONLY through persistent increases in the money supply. As such, while demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation are convenient ways to catalog the transmission mechanisms of inflation, the ultimate CAUSE of inflation is money.

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Only 1% of the U.S. population paid income taxes when the income tax was established in 1914.
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