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HOSTILE ACQUISITION: In the world of mergers, the acquisition of one company by another against the wishes of the company being acquired. Also termed a hostile takeover, this is accomplished by purchasing controlling interest in the stock of the acquired company, usually by offering to pay a price exceeding the current market price. A hostile takeover might be motivated to eliminate competition, to sell off the assets of the company for more that the takeover payment, or to temporarily inflate the price of the stock.

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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

     See also | Kaldor-Hicks efficiency | efficiency | willingness to pay | willingness to accept | benefit-cost analysis | Pareto improvement | Pareto efficiency | welfare economics | externality | market failure |


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TOTAL FACTOR COST, PERFECT COMPETITION

The opportunity cost incurred by a perfectly competitive firm when using a given factor of production to produce a good or service. This is the total cost associated with the use of a particular resource or factor of production--it is the total cost of the factor. For a perfectly competitive firm, the price paid is constant and total factor cost increases at a constant rate. Total factor cost is predominately used in the analysis of the factor market. Two derivative factor cost measures are average factor cost and marginal factor cost.

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Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.
"When I look back on all these worries, I remember the story of the old man who said on his deathbed that he had had a lot of trouble in his life, most of which had never happened. "

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