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April 16, 2024 

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ACCOUNTING COST: The actual outlays or expenses incurred in production that shows up a firm's accounting statements or records. Accounting costs, while very important to accountants, company CEOs, shareholders, and the Internal Revenue Service, is only minimally important to economists. The reason is that economists are primarily interested in economic cost (also called opportunity cost). That fact is that accounting costs and economic costs aren't always the same. An opportunity or economic cost is the value of foregone production. Some economic costs, actually a lot of economic opportunity costs, never show up as accounting costs. Moreover, some accounting costs, while legal, bonified payments by a firm, are not associated with any sort of opportunity cost.

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SDR: The abbreviation for Special Drawing Rights, which is a system of accounts nations have with International Monetary Fund that are used to settle any balance of payments deficits. In essence, SDRs are simply an international currency that makes it easier to conduct all sorts of international transactions. In decades past, when gold was used as the primary international currency, any balance of payments deficits was paid with gold. However, in 1967 this system of SDRs was established in lieu of sending gold all over the globe.

     See also | International Monetary Fund | balance of payments | money | currency | foreign trade | gold standard |


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SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION ALTERNATIVES

A firm faces three production options in the short run based on a comparison between price, average total cost, and average variable cost. If price is greater than average total cost, a firm earns an economic profit by producing the quantity that equates marginal revenue with marginal cost. If price is less than average total cost but greater than average variable cost, a firm incurs an economic loss, but produces the quantity that equates marginal revenue with marginal cost. If price is less than average variable cost, a firm shuts down production in the short run, incurring an economic loss equal to total fixed cost.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites wanting to buy either a how-to book on home repairs or a large, stuffed kitty cat. Be on the lookout for broken fingernail clippers.
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The word "fiscal" is derived from a Latin word meaning "moneybag."
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-- William A. Ward

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