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July 17, 2018 

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PIGOUVIAN TAX: A tax on an external cost, such as pollution, designed to use market forces to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. A. C. Pigou, one of the first economists to study the market failure of externalities, is credited with developing this tax system for internalizing costs external to the market. An external cost caused by pollution, for example, can be internalized if polluters pay a tax equal to the value of the external cost.

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ASSUMPTION: An initial condition or statement that sets the stage for an analysis by abstracting from the real world. Assumptions are important to economic theories and economic analysis. Some assumptions are used to simplify a complex analysis into more easily manageable parts. These establish idealistic benchmarks that can be used to evaluate real world conditions. Other assumptions are used as control conditions that are subsequently changed to evaluate the effect of the change. The use of ceteris paribus assumptions in comparative statics analysis is an excellent example.

     See also | abstraction | theory | scientific method | science | economic analysis | marginal analysis | ceteris paribus | comparative statics | model | variable | hypothesis | principle | perfect competition |


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TOTAL REVENUE CURVE, PERFECT COMPETITION

A curve that graphically represents the relation between the total revenue received by a perfectly competitive firm for selling its output and the quantity of output sold. It is combined with a perfectly competitive firm's total cost curve to determine economic profit and the profit maximizing level of production. The slope of the total revenue curve is marginal revenue.

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BROWN PRAGMATOX
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale trying to buy either a birthday greeting card for your grandmother or a coffee cup commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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Lombard Street is London's equivalent of New York's Wall Street.
"God grants victory to perseverance. "

-- Simon Bolivar, South American liberator

AVC
Average Variable Cost
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