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December 6, 2022 

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MARGINAL REVENUE, PERFECT COMPETITION: The change in total revenue resulting from a change in the quantity of output sold. Marginal revenue indicates how much extra revenue a perfectly competitive firm receives for selling an extra unit of output. It is found by dividing the change in total revenue by the change in the quantity of output. Marginal revenue is the slope of the total revenue curve and is one of two revenue concepts derived from total revenue. The other is average revenue. To maximize profit, a perfectly competitive firm equates marginal revenue and marginal cost.

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DEFLATION: An extended decline in the average level of prices. This is the exact opposite of inflation--in which prices are rising over an extended period, and it should be contrasted with disinflation--which is a decline in the inflation rate. Like inflation, deflation occurs when the AVERAGE price level decreases over time. While some prices might decrease, other prices could increase or remain unchanged, so long as the AVERAGE follows a downward trend. Deflation is a rare bird indeed in our economy and typically happens only when we're in a prolonged period of stagnation. We might see some deflation during a fairly lengthy recession, but more than likely deflation saves itself for the occasional depression that dots our economic landscape.

     See also | inflation | price level | disinflation | recession | depression | Consumer Price Index | GDP price deflator |


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SCREENING

When confronted by asymmetric information, the use of small bits of information, or indicators, that suggest more comprehensive information. Screening occurs when those with limited information try to identify indicators suggesting more complete information. It is used in markets with adverse selection and moral hazard, especially in labor markets and in the provision of insurance. Common methods of screening include aptitude tests, affiliations, past behavior, and personal characteristics. A related method is signalling.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store hoping to buy either decorative garden figurines or a wall poster commemorating last Friday (you know why). Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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