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July 23, 2018 

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IDENTIFICATION LAG: In the context of economic policies, the time between a shock to the economy and realization that the shock has occurred. This is one of several policy lags that limit the effectiveness of stabilization policies designed to correct business-cycle fluctuations. This is also one of two inside lags. The other is an implementation lag. Also termed recognition lag, the identification lag emerges due to the time needed to measure economic activity. While the lag is generally positive, it actually can be negative through accurate forecasting techniques. When negative policies can be undertaken to correct a problem before it occurs.

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DIAMOND-WATER PARADOX: The perplexing observation that water, which is more useful than diamonds, has a lower price. If price is related to utility, how can this occur? This paradox was first proposed by classical economists in the 19th century and was subsequently used as a stepping stone for developing the notion of marginal utility and the role it plays in the demand price of a good. The paradox is magically cleared up with an understanding of marginal utility and total utility. People are willing to pay a higher price for goods with greater marginal utility. As such, water which is plentiful has enormous total utility, but a low price because of a low marginal utility. Diamonds, however, have less total utility because they are less plentiful, but a high price because of a high marginal utility.

     See also | price | demand price | utility | marginal utility | total utility | consumer surplus | law of diminishing marginal utility | marginal utility-price ratio | marginal utility and demand |


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MARGINAL COST CURVE

A curve that graphically represents the relation between the marginal cost incurred by a firm in the short-run product of a good or service and the quantity of output produced. This curve is constructed to capture the relation between marginal cost and the level of output, holding other variables like technology and resource prices constant. Three related curves are average total cost curve, average variable cost curve, and average fixed cost curve.

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