March 21, 2018 

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AD VALOREM TARIFF: A tax on imports that is specified as a percentage of the value of the good or service being taxed. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas, which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, an 'ad valorem tariff' generates revenue for the government. For example: a 15 percent ad valorem tariff on a TV set worth $100 would pay a tariff of $15. One advantage of an ad valorem tariff is that it keeps up with changes in prices (mostly inflation).

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MARGINAL COST AND DIMINISHING MARGINAL RETURNS: Decreasing then increasing marginal cost that gives rise to a U-shaped marginal cost curve reflects increasing then decreasing marginal returns. In particular the decreasing marginal returns is caused by the law of diminishing marginal returns. As such, the law of diminishing marginal returns affects not only the short-run production of a firm but also the cost of production in the short run.

     See also | marginal cost | law of diminishing marginal returns | variable input | variable cost | fixed input | fixed cost | marginal cost curve | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns |

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MARGINAL COST AND DIMINISHING MARGINAL RETURNS, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama,, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: March 21, 2018].

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Values of specific economic variables that the monetary authority seeks achieve with monetary policy. The three most noted monetary policy targets are interest rates, monetary aggregates, and exchange rates. These targets are usually intermediate targets that can be quickly achieved and easily measured, but then move the economy toward the ultimate macroeconomic goals of full employment, stability, and economic growth.

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