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February 2, 2023 

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TRADE DEFICIT: Formally termed a balance of trade deficit, a condition in which a nation's imports are greater than exports. In other words, a country is buying more stuff for foreigners than foreigners are buying from domestic producers. A trade deficit is usually thought to be bad for a country. For this reason, some countries seek to reduce their trade deficit by--(1) establishing trade barriers on imports, (2) reducing the exchange rate (termed devaluation) such that exports are less expensive and imports more expensive, or (3) invading foreign countries with sizable armies.

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TAX PROPORTIONALITY: The proportion of income paid in taxes at different levels of income. In some taxes the proportion of income paid in taxes increases with income in other cases it decreases. And in still other cases, it remains the same. The three basic types of taxes are proportional taxes, progressive taxes, and regressive taxes. Because almost everyone would like to pay fewer taxes (and presumably have others pay more), tax proportionality is a the center of political controversy. Higher incomes prefer regressive taxes and lower incomes prefer regressive taxes.

     See also | taxes | proportional tax | progressive tax | regressive tax | tax incidence | tax avoidance | tax evasion | public finance | income distribution |


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TAX PROPORTIONALITY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2023. [Accessed: February 2, 2023].


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ADVERSE SELECTION

An inefficient, bad, or adverse outcome of a market exchange that results because buyers and/or sellers make decisions based on asymmetric information. This commonly results in a market that exchanges a lesser quality good, what is termed the market for lemons. Two related problems resulting from asymmetric information are moral hazard and the principal-agent problem. Two methods of lessoning the problem of adverse selection are signalling and screening.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the shopping mall hoping to buy either a genuine down-filled comforter or a 200-foot blue garden hose. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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Much of the $15 million used by the United States to finance the Louisiana Purchase from France was borrowed from European banks.
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