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ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE: The general ability to produced more goods using fewer resources. This idea of absolute advantage is important for trading that occurs between both people and nations. A nation can get an absolute advantage from an advanced level of technology or higher quality resources. For a person, an absolute advantage can result from natural abilities or the acquisition of human capital (education, training, or experience).

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PUBLIC FINANCE: The study of how the government (or public) sector pays for (or finances) expenditures through taxes and borrowing. Governments produce or provide valuable goods and services, such as education, security, and transportation. They pay for these goods by collecting taxes or, if taxes fall short, by borrowing through the financial markets. Public finance adapts and applies the fundamental microeconomic theory of markets to the public sector and government activity. In particular, this area of study analyzes the efficiency of taxes and the market failure of public goods. Public finance is also key to the study of government stabilization policies that address the inflation and unemployment problems of business cycles. In particular, fiscal policy is the manipulation of government expenditures and taxes to stabilize the business cycle.

     See also | government | government sector | public sector | government purchases | taxes | fiscal policy | market failures | government functions | inflation | unemployment | business cycles |


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AGGREGATE DEMAND CURVE

A graphical representation of the relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate demand determinants constant. The aggregate demand (AD) curve is one side of the graphical presentation of the aggregate market. The other side is occupied by the long-run aggregate supply curve and/or the short-run aggregate supply curve. The negative slope of the aggregate demand curve captures the inverse relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level. This negative slope is attributable to the interest-rate, real-balance, and net-export effects.

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