March 18, 2018 

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PREFERENCES: One of the five demand determinants assumed constant when a demand curve is constructed, and that shift the demand curve when they change. The other four are income, other prices, buyers' expectations, and number of buyers. This determinant comes directly form the WILLINGNESS aspect of demand. Before you can have a demand for a good, you must be willing to have the good, you must have a preference for it. In general, if buyers have a greater preference for a good, then they buy more of the good.

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MARKET FAILURES: Conditions in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction. The four main market failures are--(1) public good, (2) market control, (3) externality, and (4) imperfect information. In each case, a market acting without any government imposed direction, does not direct an efficient amount of our resources into the production, distribution, or consumption of the good.

     See also | market | fifth rule of imperfection | sixth rule of ignorance | public good | market control | externalities | production | consumption | information | pollution | regulation |

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Information is not equally available to everyone. Asymmetric information results because efficient information search inevitably stops short of compete information. Some people obtain more benefits from information than others, are willing to incur higher search costs, and thus end up knowing more. Or they incur lower information search costs and have easier access to the information. In a market, sellers tend to have more information about the good than buyers. Asymmetric information gives rise to adverse selection, moral hazard, and the principal-agent problem. These problems can be lessened through signalling and screening.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for rummage sales wanting to buy either a large, stuffed kitty cat or a cross-cut paper shredder. Be on the lookout for attractive cable television service repair people.
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