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HARD CURRENCY: Historically money that is in the form of precious metals, especially gold. In modern times, any national currency that is expected to retain its value (and even appreciate in value), and is readily acceptable for most international transactions. The U.S. dollar, German marc, and Swiss franc tend to be near the top of the list of hard currencies (also termed hard money).

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MARKET FAILURES: Conditions in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction. The four main market failures are--(1) public good, (2) market control, (3) externality, and (4) imperfect information. In each case, a market acting without any government imposed direction, does not direct an efficient amount of our resources into the production, distribution, or consumption of the good.

     See also | market | fifth rule of imperfection | sixth rule of ignorance | public good | market control | externalities | production | consumption | information | pollution | regulation |


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AGGREGATE DEMAND

The total real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers are willing and able to undertake at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand, usually abbreviated AD, is an inverse relation between price level and aggregate expenditures. This is one half of the AS-AD (aggregate market) analysis. The other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand consists of four aggregate expenditures--consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports--made by the four macroeconomic sectors--household, business, government, and foreign.

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