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November 17, 2019 

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LRAC CURVE: The common abbreviation for the long-run average cost curve, which is a curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

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X-INEFFICIENCY: Cost that is higher than it needs to be because a firm is operating inefficiently. This is most often seen for firms that have a great deal of market control, especially monopoly. The lack of competition allows a business to pad it's expenses, hire unneeded employees (like relatives), goof off instead of working, and all sorts of other things that lessen production and increase cost. The business is not penalized for these actions, because market control allows the company to extract whatever price is needed to cover cost.

     See also | economic rent | profit | opportunity cost | efficiency | market control | monopoly | natural monopoly | average-cost pricing | public utility |


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MANAGERIAL BEHAVIOR

A preference for maintaining the status quo over changing it based on relatively greater satisfaction generated by redundant information over novel information. Managerial behavior is well suited for keeping an existing business and complex organizations running smoothly and efficiently. This behavior is inclined to manage, to administer, and to apply existing rules and procedures. An alternative is entrepreneurial behavior, which is a preference for changing the status quo over maintaining it.

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