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September 22, 2018 

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ACTUAL INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector actual undertakes during a given time period, including both planned investment and any unplanned inventory changes. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

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COST OF LIVING:

The amount of income or money needed to acquire a given quantity of goods and services or to achieve a given living standard. This cost of living notion is closely intertwined with inflation, the economy's price level, and the concept of purchasing power.
The cost of living is typically indicated by a price index such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The CPI, for example, measures the changing cost of a specific market basket of goods. An increase in the CPI indicates that the cost of this market basket has increased, and presumably so too has the cost of living. In fact, labor union wages, benefits paid to Social Security recipients, and similar income sources are regularly adjusted for changes in the cost of living using the CPI.

Over the decades, the cost of living generally has been in the upward direction, the result of persistent inflation. The cost of living today is greater than it was a decade back. This means, quite simply, that to achieve the same living standard today as ten years ago, then more income or money is needed. Fortunately incomes and the amount of money in the economy have also both increased. For most people these increases have been greater than inflation and the cost of living. In addition, technological advances have improved the quality of goods and services that people buy. While it might cost more to buy a car today than ten years ago, that car is better built, safer, and more comfortable.

Unfortunately, some people focus exclusively on the price side of the cost of living without fully recognizing the income side. If prices rise by 10 percent and incomes rise by 20 percent, then the cost of living is certainly higher, but the means of achieving a given living standard is actually easier. While some might fondly recall those "good ol' days" when "a candy bar cost a quarter," income was also less. An increase in the price of a candy bar (say from 25 cents to 50 cents) certainly indicates a higher cost of living, but an increase in hourly wages (say from $2 to $10) more than compensates for the higher price. The ability to make the purchase is substantially greater.

Not only does the cost of living change over time, it also varies from place to place. As a general rule, the cost of living tends to be higher in bigger cities than smaller towns, and lower still in rural areas. It also tends to be higher in some states, like New York and California, than in others. Part of this is based on quality differences that should be, but often are not, captured by cost of living measures. For example, it might very well "cost" more to live in large urban areas, but residents also have access to a greater variety of goods, some of which (opera, museums, professional sports) are not available in smaller towns.

<= COSTCOST-PUSH INFLATION =>


Recommended Citation:

COST OF LIVING, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: September 22, 2018].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | price index | price level | price stability | inflation | deflation | disinflation | inflation problems | inflation causes | inflation rate | Consumer Price Index | GDP price deflator |


Or For A Little Background...

     | business cycles | expansion | macroeconomics | macroeconomic goals | macroeconomic problems | gross domestic product | real gross domestic product | nominal gross domestic product |


And For Further Study...

     | cost of living | demand-pull inflation | cost-push inflation | Producer Price Index | Wholesale Price Index | CPI and GDP price deflator | unemployment | Bureau of Labor Statistics | Bureau of Economic Analysis | National Income and Product Accounts | shortage | circular flow | stabilization policies | economic growth |


Related Websites (Will Open in New Window)...

     | Bureau of Labor Statistics | Social Security Administration |


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