Wednesday  September 18, 2024
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 MARGINAL COST AND MARGINAL PRODUCT: Because variable cost is largely associated with the cost of employing a variable input in the short run, it's possible to identify a connection between the marginal cost curve and the marginal product curve. In particular, the quantity of output in which marginal cost is at a minimum, is the same quantity of output produced by the variable input when the marginal product of the variable input is at a maximum. In addition, over the range of production in which the variable input experiences increasing marginal returns and marginal product increases, the marginal cost curve declines. And over the range of production in which the variable input experiences decreasing marginal returns brought on by the law of diminishing marginal returns and marginal product increases, the marginal cost curve is rising.

EMPLOYMENT-POPULATION RATIO:

The ratio of employed persons to the total civilian noninstitutionalized population 16 years old or older. Also termed the employment rate, the employment-population ratio is used as an alternative to the unemployment rate as an indicator of the utilization of labor resources.
Because the employment-population ratio is the ratio of employment to population, it does not suffer from underestimation problems attributable to discouraged workers and other unemployed persons that enter and exit the labor force. In particular, the unemployment rate goes up and down as people enter and exit the labor force, even though these folks have no affect on employment and production. When discouraged workers leave the labor force, the unemployment rate goes down, but the employment-population ratio does not change. When high school and college students seek jobs during the summer months, the unemployment rate goes up, even though the employment-population ratio does not change.

The calculation of the employment-population ratio is illustrated using this equation:

 employment-population ratio = employedpersonstotal noninstitutionalizedcivilian population x 100

Suppose that the total noninstitutionalized civilian population is 206,000 people and the number of employed persons is 133,000. The employment-population ratio is calculated as:

 employment-population ratio = 133,000206,000 x 100 = 64.6%

The employment-population ratio is closely associated with the labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the ratio of the sum of both employed and unemployed to the total noninstitutionalized civilian population. The employment-population ratio is simply the ratio of employed persons to the total noninstitutionalized civilian population.

The connection between the employment-population ratio and labor force participation rate is also noted by the general upward trend in the employment-population ratio. In the late 1940s, the employment-population ratio was in the mid-50 percent range. By the late 1990s, this rate had gradually risen to the mid-60 percent range. Much of this increase can be attributed to the increased participation of women in the labor force, which resulted from a change in the traditional role of women as housewives, stay-at-home mothers, and homemakers. The end result is that the economy has found employment for a larger fraction of the population, resulting in an increase in total production.

The employment-population ratio is also closely connected to what is termed the dependency ratio, which indicates the degree to which the entire population depends on those actively engaged in production. When the employment-population ratio increases, society has more people working and producing and thus fewer dependents not working and producing. The burden placed on each provider is less when more people do the providing.

 <= EMPLOYED PERSONS EMPLOYMENT RATE =>

Recommended Citation:

EMPLOYMENT-POPULATION RATIO, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: September 18, 2024].

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