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RISK POOLING: Combining the uncertainty of individuals into a calculable risk for large groups. For example, you may or may not contract the flu this year. However, if you're thrown in with 99,999 other people, then health-care types who spend their lives measuring the odds of an illness, can predict that 1 percent of the group, or 1,000 people, will get the flu. The uncertainty is that they probably don't know which 1,000 people, they only know the number afflicted. This little bit of information is what makes risk pooling possible. If the cost is $50 per illness, then an insurance company can insure your 100,000-member group against flu if they collect $50,000 ($50 x 1,000 sick people), or 50 cents per person. By agreeing to pay the cost of each sick person in exchange for the 50 cent payments, the insurance company has effectively pooled the risk of the group.

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SAVING LINE:

A graphical depiction of the relation between household sector saving and income. The saving line is closely related to the consumption line that forms one of the key building blocks for Keynesian economics. A saving line is characterized by vertical intercept, which indicates autonomous saving, and slope, which is the marginal propensity to save and indicates induced saving. The injections-leakages model used in Keynesian economics is based on the saving line.
The saving',500,400)">saving line, also termed propensity-to-save line or saving function, shows the relation between saving and income for the household sector. The income measure commonly used is national income or disposable income. Occasionally a measure of aggregate production, such as gross domestic product, is used instead.

The purpose of the saving line is to graphically illustrate the basic saving-income relation for the household sector, which is the foundation of the injections-leakages model used in Keynesian economics.

Two basic types of saving are indicated by the saving line. Autonomous saving is the vertical intercept, or Y-intercept, of the saving line. Induced saving is the slope of the saving line. Of no small importance, the slope of the saving line is also the marginal propensity to save (MPS).

Saving Line
Saving Line

A representative saving line is presented in the exhibit to the right. This red line, labeled S in the exhibit is positively sloped, indicating that greater levels of income generate greater saving by the household sector. This positive relation corresponds to the fundamental psychological law of Keynesian economics.

The two primary characteristics of the saving line are slope and intercept:

  • Slope: The slope of the saving line presented here is positive, but less than one. In fact, the slope of the saving line is numerically equal to the marginal propensity to save. In this case the slope is equal to 0.25. The positive slope reflects induced saving--more income means more saving. It also reflects the basic Keynesian psychological law. Click the [Slope] button to illustrate.

  • Intercept: The saving line intersects the vertical axis at a value of -$1 trillion. This intersection indicates autonomous saving--saving unrelated to income. Autonomous saving is usually negative, indicating dissaving. This occurs because autonomous consumption is positive. Click the [Intercept] button to illustrate.
Note that the level of income (and production) generated by full employment of resources is NOT indicated in this exhibit. Full employment could correspond with $2 trillion of income or $20 trillion. There is no way of knowing. This is particularly important when injections-leakages model, used to identified equilibrium, is derived based on the saving line.

<= SAVING-INVESTMENT MODELSAVING SCHEDULE =>


Recommended Citation:

SAVING LINE, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: December 7, 2022].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | saving schedule | saving function | induced saving | autonomous saving | average propensity to save | marginal propensity to save | consumption line | derivation, saving line | slope, saving line | intercept, saving line | effective demand | psychological law |


Or For A Little Background...

     | saving | consumption | consumption expenditures | Keynesian economics | macroeconomics | household sector | disposable income | national income | gross domestic product |


And For Further Study...

     | personal consumption expenditures | induced expenditures | autonomous expenditures | aggregate expenditures | aggregate expenditures line | derivation, consumption line | consumption expenditures determinants | Keynesian model | Keynesian equilibrium | injections-leakages model | aggregate demand | paradox of thrift | fiscal policy | multiplier |


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