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August 18, 2022 

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AD VALOREM TARIFF: A tax on imports that is specified as a percentage of the value of the good or service being taxed. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas, which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, an 'ad valorem tariff' generates revenue for the government. For example: a 15 percent ad valorem tariff on a TV set worth $100 would pay a tariff of $15. One advantage of an ad valorem tariff is that it keeps up with changes in prices (mostly inflation).

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DERIVATION, AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES LINE: An aggregate expenditures line, a graphical depiction of the relation between aggregate expenditures and the level of aggregate income or production, can be derived by sequentially adding expenditures by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign). This derivation process begins with the consumption line, then adds investment, government purchases, and finally net exports. The process actually generates three alternative aggregate expenditures lines based on the number of sectors included (two sector, three sector, and four sector).

     See also | aggregate expenditures line | two-sector aggregate expenditures line | three-sector aggregate expenditures line | four-sector aggregate expenditures line | slope, aggregate expenditures line | intercept, aggregate expenditures line | aggregate expenditures determinants | induced expenditures | autonomous expenditures | consumption expenditures | investment expenditures | government purchases | net exports | aggregate expenditures | Keynesian economics | macroeconomics | household sector | business sector | government sector | foreign sector | national income | gross domestic product | 45-degree line | effective demand | psychological law | consumption line | investment line | government purchases line | net exports line | Keynesian model | two-sector Keynesian model | three-sector Keynesian model | four-sector Keynesian model | Keynesian equilibrium | injections-leakages model | aggregate demand | paradox of thrift | fiscal policy | multiplier |


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ARC ELASTICITY

The average elasticity for discrete changes in two variables. The distinguishing characteristic of arc elasticity is that percentage changes are calculated based on the average of initial and ending values of each variable, rather than initial values. Arc elasticity is generally calculated using the midpoint elasticity formula. The contrast to arc elasticity is point elasticity. For infinitesimally small changes in two variables, arc elasticity is the same as point elasticity.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway wanting to buy either clothing for your kitty cats or a set of luggage without wheels. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from former employers.
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