March 23, 2018 

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PERFECT COMPETITION, REALISM: Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that does NOT exist in the real world. While some real world industries might come relatively close to one or two of the four key characteristics of perfect competition, none matches all four sufficiently that they can be declared PERFECTLY competitively. Some industries come close on the large number of small firms and the identical product characteristics. A few industries have relatively good, although not perfect, information about prices and technology. However, almost all industries fall far short of the perfect mobility characteristics.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Instability
  • What It Is
  • Fluctuations
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Extension
  • Instability
  • Self-Correction
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Basic Shifts
  • AD Shifts
  • AD Increase: Long Run
  • AD Decrease: Long Run
  • AD Increase: Short Run
  • AD Decrease: Short Run
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Complex Shifts
  • AD
  • AD Increase
  • AD Decrease
  • SRAS
  • SRAS Increase
  • SRAS Decrease
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Synthesis
  • Business Cycles
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Aggregate Shocks

    In this lesson we use the aggregate market model to analyze assorted disruptions that cause shifts of the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, and long-run aggregate supply curves. The reason for doing this, of course, is to explain and understand macroeconomic activity, especially business cycle instability that causes inflation and unemployment.

    • The first unit of this lesson reviews the aggregate market and examines how it is affected macroeconomic instability.
    • In the second unit, we take and look at assorted demands on both the demand side and supply side of the aggregate market that cause shorts to the aggregate market.
    • We then move into an analysis of six basic shifts involving increases and decreases in the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, and long-run aggregate supply curves.
    • The fourth unit builds on these six basic shifts to examine four complex shifts in which recessionary and inflationary gaps trigger self-correction adjustments of the short-run aggregate supply.
    • We close out this lesson in the fifth with a thought or two on how the aggregate market can be used to explain business cycle fluctuations.

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    Ceteris paribus factors, other than aggregate income or production, that are held constant when the net exports line is constructed and which cause the net exports line to shift when they change. Some of the more important net exports determinants are global economic conditions, exchange rates, and trade barriers.

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    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway seeking to buy either a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Olympics or a flower arrangement with a lot of roses for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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    "It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing of the little things, the common duties, a little better and better."

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