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AD: The abbreviation for aggregate demand, which is the total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Instability
  • What It Is
  • Fluctuations
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Extension
  • Instability
  • Self-Correction
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Basic Shifts
  • AD Shifts
  • AD Increase: Long Run
  • AD Decrease: Long Run
  • AD Increase: Short Run
  • AD Decrease: Short Run
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Complex Shifts
  • AD
  • AD Increase
  • AD Decrease
  • SRAS
  • SRAS Increase
  • SRAS Decrease
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Synthesis
  • Business Cycles
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Aggregate Shocks

    In this lesson we use the aggregate market model to analyze assorted disruptions that cause shifts of the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, and long-run aggregate supply curves. The reason for doing this, of course, is to explain and understand macroeconomic activity, especially business cycle instability that causes inflation and unemployment.

    • The first unit of this lesson reviews the aggregate market and examines how it is affected macroeconomic instability.
    • In the second unit, we take and look at assorted demands on both the demand side and supply side of the aggregate market that cause shorts to the aggregate market.
    • We then move into an analysis of six basic shifts involving increases and decreases in the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, and long-run aggregate supply curves.
    • The fourth unit builds on these six basic shifts to examine four complex shifts in which recessionary and inflationary gaps trigger self-correction adjustments of the short-run aggregate supply.
    • We close out this lesson in the fifth with a thought or two on how the aggregate market can be used to explain business cycle fluctuations.

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    INCOME RECEIVED BUT NOT EARNED

    The three types of income received but not earned (IRBNE) are Social Security payments, unemployment compensation payments, and welfare payments. These are three key transfer payments from the government sector to the household sector. The basic goal of transfer payments is to transfer a portion of the income earned by the factors of production (because they HAVE income) to other members of the household sector (who presumably NEED more income than they have). IRBNE is added to national income to derive personal income.

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    APLS

    BLACK DISMALAPOD
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites wanting to buy either pink cotton balls or a genuine down-filled comforter. Be on the lookout for slightly overweight pizza delivery guys.
    Your Complete Scope

    This isn't me! What am I?

    Parker Brothers, the folks who produce the Monopoly board game, prints more Monopoly money each year than real currency printed by the U.S. government.
    "If things are not going well with you, begin your effort at correcting the situation by carefully examining the service you are rendering, and especially the spirit in which you are rendering it."

    -- Roger Babson, statistician and columnist

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    Subgame Perfect Equilibrium
    A PEDestrian's Guide
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