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YELLOW-DOG CONTRACT: An agreement signed by workers before they are hired, stipulating that they would not join a union after they are hired. This contract was commonly used by firms in the late 1800s and early 1900s to limit labor union membership and thus to prevent unions from exerting control over the labor market. Yellow-dog contracts were outlawed by the Norris-LaGuardia Act in 1932.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Exchange
  • What It Is
  • Equilibrium
  • Competition
  • Number
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: The Numbers
  • Schedule
  • Market Agreement
  • Equilibrium
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: A Graph
  • The Curves
  • The Equilibrium
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Adjustment
  • Self-Correction
  • Shortage
  • Surplus
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Efficiency
  • What It Is
  • Efficient Markets
  • Too Little Production
  • Too Much Production
  • Inefficiency
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Market

    In this lesson, we'll see how buyers (discussed in the demand lesson) come together with sellers (discussed in the supply lesson) to exchange commodities using a market. More precisely, this lesson develops an abstract market model, or market analysis, that we can use to explain and understand a wide range of real world exchanges.

    • This lesson begins with an overview of the basic exchange process underlying markets, including the notion of equilibrium, the roles played by price and quantity, and the importance of competition.
    • In the second unit we work through a simple market analysis using demand and supply schedules, highlight both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions.
    • The third unit then carefully examines the notion of market equilibrium using demand and supply curves, which generates the widely used graphical model of the market.
    • Moving onto the fourth unit, we use the graphical market model to investigate the automatic market responses to shortages and surpluses.
    • The lesson concludes in the fifth unit by considering the relation between market exchanges and efficiency.

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    MARGINAL REVENUE CURVE, PERFECT COMPETITION

    A curve that graphically represents the relation between the marginal revenue received by a perfectly competitive firm for selling its output and the quantity of output sold. Because a perfectly competitive firm is a price taker and faces a horizontal demand curve, its marginal revenue curve is also horizontal and coincides with its average revenue (and demand) curve. A perfectly competitive firm maximizes profit by producing the quantity of output found at the intersection of the marginal revenue curve and marginal cost curve.

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    APLS

    RED AGGRESSERINE
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at an auction hoping to buy either a New York Yankees baseball cap or a solid oak entertainment center. Be on the lookout for attractive cable television service repair people.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
    "You can't build a reputation on what you are going to do."

    -- Henry Ford, automaker

    G-10
    Group of Ten
    A PEDestrian's Guide
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