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July 22, 2018 

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COLLECTIVE BARGAINING: The negotiation process between a union and the company that employs the union's members -- usually going by the moniker of management. The purpose of collective bargaining is to find mutual agreement on wages, fringe benefits, workhours, promotion criteria, grievance procedures, and everything else that has to do with employment. The end result of this process is a collective bargaining agreement, which is a formal contract between management and the union. A negotiation process that breaks down without reaching an agreement might lead to a strike, lockout, or mediation.

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IMF: The abbreviation for International Monetary Fund, which is an agency of the United Nations established in 1945 to monitor and stabilize foreign exchange markets. Close to 150 of the world's nations (which is just about all of them) belong to the IMF. The IMF was set up to keep countries from manipulating their exchange rates in such a way as to gain a competitive trading advantage over others. Their strategies of control have changed over the decades, but they currently use a managed float where exchange rates are allowed to fluctuate with changing market conditions, but only within certain ranges. The IMF also plays an active role in providing the "international" currency needed to participate in foreign trade through its system of Special Drawing Rights.

     See also | foreign exchange market | exchange rate | J curve | managed float | fixed exchange rate | floating exchange rate | foreign trade | Special Drawing Rights | World Bank | G-7 |


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IMF, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: July 22, 2018].


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EXCESS RESERVES

The reserves (vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits) that banks have over and above what they are required by government to keep to back up deposits. The primary use of excess reserves, also termed free reserves, is for loans to consumers and businesses. Because reserves do not generate interest, revenue, or profit, banks are inclined to keep as few excess reserves as possible.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at an auction hoping to buy either a New York Yankees baseball cap or a solid oak entertainment center. Be on the lookout for attractive cable television service repair people.
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In the early 1900s around 300 automobile companies operated in the United States.
"You can't build a reputation on what you are going to do."

-- Henry Ford, automaker

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