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January 24, 2018 

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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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FIXED EXCHANGE RATE: An exchange rate that's established at a given level and maintained through government (usually central bank) actions. To fix the exchange rate, a government must be willing to buy and sell currency in the foreign exchange market in whatever amounts are necessary. A fixed exchange rate typically disrupts a nation's balance of trade and balance of payments. If the exchange rate is fixed too low, then a government needs to sell it's currency in the foreign exchange market, and may end up expanding the money supply too much, which then causes inflation. If the exchange rate is fixed too high, then export sales to other countries are curtailed and the economy is likely to slide into a recession.

     See also | exchange rate | currency | money | foreign exchange market | balance of trade | balance of payments | money supply | export | import | floating exchange rate | managed float | J curve |


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FIXED EXCHANGE RATE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: January 24, 2018].


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RATIONAL BEHAVIOR

The notion that people make decisions based on the desire to obtain the greatest amount of satisfaction. Rational behavior essentially means that people prefer more to less. The presumption of rational behavior underlies most economic analysis, especially that applied to consumer demand theory.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time lost in your local discount super center wanting to buy either a large stuffed brown and white teddy bear or a replacement washer for your kitchen faucet. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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Only 1% of the U.S. population paid income taxes when the income tax was established in 1914.
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