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KALDOR-HICKS EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if the monetary value of society's resources are maximized. This is achieved if the marginal willingness to pay by those who benefit from an action is equal to the marginal willingness to accept of those harmed. If this condition is not achieved, then a Kaldor-Hicks improvement is possible. Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, named after Nicholas Kaldor and John Hicks, is the theoretical basis of benefit-cost analysis, a technique commonly used to evaluate the desirability of producing public goods (such as parks, highways, or reservoirs). This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Pareto efficiency.

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AGGREGATE MARKET SHOCKS: Disruptions of the equilibrium in the aggregate market (or AS-AD model) caused by shifts of the aggregate demand, short-run aggregate supply, or long-run aggregate supply curves. Shocks of the aggregate market are associated with, and thus used to analyze, assorted macroeconomic phenomena such as business cycles, unemployment, inflation, stabilization policies, and economic growth. The specific analysis of aggregate market shocks identifies changes in the price level (GDP price deflator) and real production (real GDP). However, changes in the price level and real production have direct implications for the unemployment rate, the inflation rate, national income, and a host of other macroeconomic measures.

     See also | equilibrium | aggregate market | aggregate demand | short-run aggregate supply | long-run aggregate supply | macroeconomics | phenomenon | business cycles | unemployment | inflation | stabilization policies | economic growth | price level | real production | unemployment rate | inflation rate | national income |


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LONG RUN, MICROECONOMICS

In terms of the microeconomic analysis of production and supply, a period of time in which all inputs under the control of a firm used in the production process are variable. In the long run, labor and capital are variable inputs. The long-run analysis of production reveals the key role played by returns to scale. This is one of four production time periods used in the study of microeconomics. The other three are short run, very long run, and very short run (or market period). The long run is also a time period designation used in the macroeconomic analysis of economic growth and full employment.

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