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October 17, 2018 

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JUNK BOND: A bond, usually a corporate bond, that has a higher than average risk of default, but which pays a higher than average interest rate to compensate. Junk bonds were a popular method of investment during the 1970s and 1980s, especially to finance corporate mergers. Junk bounds held by savings and loan associations that defaulted were a major source of problems during the 1980s.

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CENTRAL PLANNING: A system of extensive central government control of an economy, including organizing production and making allocation decisions. This was the popular method of allocating resources and answering the three basic questions of allocation under the communism/socialism economic systems of the Soviet Union, China, and others during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Applying the communist/socialist philosophy that private property and market allocation were "bad," central planning relied on extremely detailed plans made by government. These plans would set specific production quotas for individual products, parts, components, and inputs fabricated by all of the factories and farms across the economy. This was a daunting, complex task that required detailed production information for hundreds of thousands of different commodities.

     See also | government | government sector | economy | production | allocation | resources | three questions of allocation | communism | socialism | private property | market | information | capitalism | free enterprise |


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CENTRAL PLANNING, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: October 17, 2018].


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SHORTAGE

A condition in the market in which the quantity demanded is greater than the quantity supplied at the existing price. Because buyers are unable to buy as much of the good as they want, a shortage generally causes an increase in the market price, which then acts to restore equilibrium. A shortage, which also goes by the terms excess demand and sellers' market, is one of two basic states of disequilibrium for the market. The other is surplus.

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