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OUTPUT: A generic term for a tangible good or an intangible service that is the end result of the production/resource transformation process. This notion of output, which also goes by the alias product, usually surfaces in the context of analyzing the short-run production of a firm. The short-run relation between a variable input and output is of particular interest because it reveals the law of diminishing marginal returns. This law indicates that additional quantities of a variable input, when added to a fixed input, have decreasing marginal products, or marginal returns.

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COMPLEMENT: Two goods that "go together," either in consumption or production. In terms of demand, a complement-in-consumption is one of two goods that are consumed together such that an increase in the price of one good leads to a decrease in demand and a leftward shift in the demand curve for the other good. If the demand of good 1 decreases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are complements-in-consumption. In terms of supply, a complement-in-production is one of two goods that are produced jointly using the same resources, such that an increase in the price of one good leads to an increase in supply and a rightward shift in the supply curve for the other good. If the supply of good 1 increases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are complements-in-production.

     See also | demand | complement-in-consumption | supply | complement-in-production | demand curve | supply curve | consumption | production | demand shock | supply shock | demand determinants | supply determinants |


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NATURAL SELECTION

The notion that firms best suited to the economic environment on the ones that tend to survive. The natural selection of business firms is an adaptation of the biological process of natural selection, in which biological entities best suited to the natural environment are the ones that survive. The concept of economic natural selection is aimed primarily at the profit-maximization assumption. Although firms might not seek to maximize profit on a day-to-day basis, those that come closest (intentionally or unintentionally) are the ones that remain in business.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through the yellow pages seeking to buy either a wall poster commemorating yesterday or pink cotton balls. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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