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January 21, 2019 

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AD VALOREM TARIFF: A tax on imports that is specified as a percentage of the value of the good or service being taxed. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas, which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, an 'ad valorem tariff' generates revenue for the government. For example: a 15 percent ad valorem tariff on a TV set worth $100 would pay a tariff of $15. One advantage of an ad valorem tariff is that it keeps up with changes in prices (mostly inflation).

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DISCRETIONARY POLICY: Government policies that involve explicit actions designed to achieve specific goals. A common type of discretionary policy is that designed to stabilize business cycles, reduce unemployment, and lower inflation, through government spending and taxes (fiscal policy) or the money supply (monetary policy). Discretionary policies are also termed activist policies because they involve active decisions by government. A contrast to discretionary policy is automatic stabilizers that help stabilize business cycles without explicit government actions.

     See also | business cycle | fiscal policy | monetary policy | stabilization policies | automatic stabilizers | discretionary | inflation | unemployment |


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FACTOR DEMAND

The willingness and ability of productive activities (usually, business firms) to hire or employ factors of production. Factor demand relates factor price and factor quantity, specifically, it is the range of factor quantities that are demanded at a range of factor prices. This is one half of the factor market. The other half is factor supply. The factors of production subject to factor demand include any and all of the four scarce resources--labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship. However, because labor involves human beings directly, it is the factor that tends to receive the most scrutiny and analysis.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials hoping to buy either a coffee cup commemorating the moon landing or a how-to book on surfing the Internet. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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In the late 1800s and early 1900s, almost 2 million children were employed as factory workers.
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