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PERFECTLY INELASTIC: An elasticity alternative in which changes in price do NOT cause any change in quantity. In other words, quantity is totally, completely unresponsive to price. Quantity just does not change, regardless of changes in price. Perfectly inelastic should be compared with other elasticity alternatives--perfectly elastic, relatively elastic, relatively inelastic, and unit elastic.

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AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS: A feature of the federal government's budget that tends to reduce the ups and downs of the business cycle without the need for any special legislative action, that is stabilization policies. The two key automatic stabilizers are income taxes and transfer payments. When our economy drops into a recession, unemployment rises, aggregate output declines, and people have less income. But with less income, they pay fewer income taxes, and thus there's less of a drain on consumption than their might have been. Likewise, many who are unemployed get transfer payments in the form of unemployment compensation, welfare, or Social Security. This lets them consume more than they would have otherwise. During an expansion, both of these go in the other direction. As a result, a recession sees more spending and fewer taxes, while an expansion has less spending and more taxes, all occurring quite automatically.

     See also | business cycle | stabilization policies | fiscal policy | transfer payment | unemployment compensation | welfare | income tax | business cycle | contraction | expansion | consumption | income | aggregate output |


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EFFECTIVE DEMAND

A key conceptual notion of Keynesian economics stipulating that the aggregate expenditures on real production is based on existing or actual income rather than the income that would be generated with full employment of resources. Effective demand is embodied in the aggregate expenditures line, which has a positive slope, but a slope of less than one. This concept was proposed by Thomas Robert Malthus in the early 1800s as a counter argument to Say's law found in classical economics and then found new life when John Maynard Keynes developed his theory in the 1930s.

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