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FEDERAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTIONS ACT: Commonly abbreviated FICA, this act passed in 1939 established payroll deductions from wage-earning employees and the employers for the Social Security system. This is the noted Social Security tax that wage earners pay and which is then used to provide Social Security benefits to the elderly, disable, and qualified dependents.

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AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS: A feature of the federal government's budget that tends to reduce the ups and downs of the business cycle without the need for any special legislative action, that is stabilization policies. The two key automatic stabilizers are income taxes and transfer payments. When our economy drops into a recession, unemployment rises, aggregate output declines, and people have less income. But with less income, they pay fewer income taxes, and thus there's less of a drain on consumption than their might have been. Likewise, many who are unemployed get transfer payments in the form of unemployment compensation, welfare, or Social Security. This lets them consume more than they would have otherwise. During an expansion, both of these go in the other direction. As a result, a recession sees more spending and fewer taxes, while an expansion has less spending and more taxes, all occurring quite automatically.

     See also | business cycle | stabilization policies | fiscal policy | transfer payment | unemployment compensation | welfare | income tax | business cycle | contraction | expansion | consumption | income | aggregate output |


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AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: August 25, 2019].


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INVOLUNTARY EXCHANGE

The process of unwillingly trading one valuable commodity (good, service, or resource) for another, usually prompted by the coercive powers of government. The key term is "unwillingly," which distinguishes involuntary exchanges from voluntary exchanges, such as those that are the foundation of market transactions.

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