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February 21, 2024 

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SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVE, MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: Market control by a monopolistically competitive firm means that it does not have a supply relation between the quantity of output produced and the price. By way of comparison a perfectly competitive firm DOES have a short-run supply curve. The small amount of market control by a monopolistically competitive firm means that its' price is NOT equal to marginal revenue, and thus it does NOT equate marginal cost and price. As such, a monopolistically competitive firm does not move along it's marginal cost curve. A monopolistic competition does not necessarily supply larger quantities at higher prices or smaller quantities at lower prices.

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ENTRY BARRIER: An institutional, government, technological, or economic restriction on the entry of firms into a market or industry. The four primary barriers to entry are: resource ownership, patents and copyrights, government restrictions, and start-up costs. Barriers to entry are a key reason for market control and the inefficiency that this generates. In particular, monopoly, oligopoly, monopsony, and oligopsony often owe their market control to assorted barriers to entry. By way of contrast, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, and monopsonistic competition have few if any barriers to entry and thus little or no market control.

     See also | institution | government | technology | firm | market | market control | inefficiency | monopoly | monopsony | oligopsony | perfect competition | monopolistic competition | monopsonistic competition |


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SAY'S LAW

A principle of classical economics developed the French economist Jean-Baptiste Say that is commonly summarized as "supply creates its own demand." This law, also referred to as Say's "theory of markets" or "law of markets," indicates that the act of producing aggregate output generates a sufficient amount of aggregate income to purchase all of the output produced. This principle indicated that excess production or insufficient demand for production was unlikely to occur, at least for any extended period. When combined with flexible prices and saving-investment equality, Say's law further implied that an economy would achieve and maintain full employment of resources. This law was singled out by John Maynard Keynes in his critique of classical economics, but remains relevant in current macroeconomic analysis, reflected in the circular flow model.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers hoping to buy either a T-shirt commemorating next Thursday or a birthday gift for your uncle. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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Only 1% of the U.S. population paid income taxes when the income tax was established in 1914.
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