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May 27, 2022 

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FEDERAL FUNDS MARKET: The market used by banks to borrow and lend bank reserves. In particular, a substantial part of the reserves held by banks are deposits with the Federal Reserve System. On many occasions some banks will have more deposits than they need to meet the Fed's reserve requirements, while other banks find themselves a little short. It's a simple matter then for one bank to lend some of these extra reserves to another--usually for no more than a few days. Working on instructions from the banks, the Fed electronically switches funds from one account to another and a federal funds market loan has been completed. The interest rate tacked on by the lending bank is termed the federal funds rate.

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FACE VALUE: The stated, or face, value of a legal claim or financial asset. For debt securities, such as corporate bonds or U. S. Treasury securities, this is amount to be repaid at the time of maturity. For equity securities, that is, corporate stocks, this is the initial value set up at the time it is issued. Face value, also called par value, is not necessarily, and often is not, equal to the current market price of the asset. A $10,000 U.S. Treasury note, for example, has a face value of $10,000, but might have a current market price of $9,950. The difference between face value and current price contributes to the yield or return on such assets. An asset is selling at a discount if the current price is less than the face value and is selling at a premium if the current price is more than the par value.

     See also | legal claim | financial asset | corporate bond | Treasury security | corporate stock | maturity | yield | discount | premium | yield to maturity | coupon rate | current yield | present value |


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AVERAGE VARIABLE COST

Total variable cost per unit of output, found by dividing total variable cost by the quantity of output. When compared with price (per unit revenue), average variable cost (AVC) indicates whether or not a profit-maximizing firm should shut down production in the short run. Average variable cost is one of three average cost concepts important to short-run production analysis. The other two are average total cost and average fixed cost. A related concept is marginal cost.

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During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
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