March 23, 2018 

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IMPLICIT COLLUSION: Seemingly independent, but parallel actions among competing firms (mostly oligopolistic firms) in an industry that achieve higher prices and profits, much as if guided by an explicit collusion agreement. Also termed tacit collusion, the distinguishing feature of implicit collusion is the lack of any explicit agreement. They key is that each firm seems to be acting independently, perhaps each responding to the same market conditions, but the end result is the same as an explicit agreement. This should be contrasted with explicit or overt collusion that does involve a formal, explicit agreement.

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FACTOR MARKET, EFFICIENCY: A factor market achieves efficiency in the allocation of resources by equating marginal revenue product to factor price. Perfect competition, as the efficiency benchmark, is the only market structure to satisfy this criterion and achieve factor market efficiency. Monopsony, oligopsony, and monopsonistic competition are inefficient because they equate marginal revenue product to marginal factor cost, both of which are greater than factor price.

     See also | factor market analysis | perfect competition, factor market analysis | monopsony, factor market analysis | monopoly, factor market analysis | bilateral monopoly, factor market analysis | monopsony, efficiency | factors of production | factor demand | factor supply | production | factor payments | market structures | marginal revenue product | marginal factor cost | efficiency | perfect competition | monopsony | oligopsony | monopsonistic competition | market structures | market control | monopsony, minimum wage | marginal productivity theory | compensating wage differentials | marginal revenue product and factor demand |

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The short-run aggregate supply curve, or SRAS curve, has similarities to, but differences from, the standard market supply curve. Both are positively sloped. Both relate price and quantity. However, the market supply curve is positively sloped due to the law of diminishing marginal returns and the short-run aggregate supply curve is positively-sloped due to inflexible prices, the pool of natural unemployment, and imbalances in real resource prices.

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