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IMPORT: Goods and services produced by the foreign sector and purchased by the domestic economy. In other words, imports are goods purchased from other countries. The United States, for example, buys a lot of the stuff produced within the boundaries of other countries, including bananas, coffee, cars, chocolate, computers, and, well, a lot of other products. Imports, together with exports, are the essence of foreign trade--goods and services that are traded among the citizens of different nations. Imports and exports are frequently combined into a single term, net exports (exports minus imports).

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GOVERNMENT PURCHASES LINE: A graphical depiction of the relation between government purchases and national income (or gross domestic product) that plays a role in Keynesian economics and the Keynesian cross. The slope of this line is positive, greater than zero, less than one, and goes by the name marginal propensity for government purchases. The vertical intercept of this line is autonomous government purchases. The aggregate expenditures line used in the Keynesian cross is obtained by adding this government purchases line, as well as, investment expenditures and net exports, to the consumption line. The government purchases line is also combined with investment expenditures for the Keynesian saving-investment model.

     See also | government purchases | government sector | consumption function | Keynesian economics | consumption expenditures | disposable income | marginal propensity to consume | aggregate expenditures | aggregate expenditures line | Keynesian cross | induced consumption | autonomous consumption | net exports line | investment line | aggregate expenditures line |


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AVERAGE FIXED COST

Total fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. When compared with price (per unit revenue), average fixed cost (AFC) indicates whether or not a profit-maximizing firm should shutdown production in the short run. Average fixed cost is one of three average cost concepts important to short-run production analysis. The other two are average total cost and average variable cost. A related concept is marginal cost.

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