March 19, 2018 

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PERSONAL INCOME AND NATIONAL INCOME: Personal income (PI) is the total income received by the members of the domestic household sector, which may or may not be earned from productive activities during a given period of time. National income (NI) is the total income earned by the citizens of the national economy resulting from their ownership of resources used in the production, which may or may not be received by members of the household sector. Personal income can be derived from national income by subtracting income earned but not received (IEBNR) and adding income received but not earned (IRBNE).

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LINE ITEM VETO: A policy intended to address the efficiency caused by legislative logrolling by giving executive officers who have veto authority over legislation (Presidents, Governors, Mayors), the ability to veto specific sections of a legislative act rather than the entire act. With a standard veto, the executive vetoes the entire piece of legislation. With line item veto, the executive can veto only parts of the legislation while signing the rest of it into law. While a line item veto is likely to reduce logrolling, it effectively gives the executive officer more power and authority.

     See also | public choice | term limits | sunset law | logrolling | explicit logrolling | majority rule | super majority rule | unanimity rule | plurality rule | Tiebout hypothesis | principal-agent problem | principle of the median voter |

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LINE ITEM VETO, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama,, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: March 19, 2018].

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Total variable cost per unit of output, found by dividing total variable cost by the quantity of output. When compared with price (per unit revenue), average variable cost (AVC) indicates whether or not a profit-maximizing firm should shut down production in the short run. Average variable cost is one of three average cost concepts important to short-run production analysis. The other two are average total cost and average fixed cost. A related concept is marginal cost.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market looking to buy either a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Olympics or a flower arrangement with a lot of roses for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
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The portrait on the quarter is a more accurate likeness of George Washington than that on the dollar bill.
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